Gastroesophageal reflux disease: causes and symptoms

Gastroesophageal reflux disease: causes and symptoms

GERD is a digestive disorder that affects both young and old, and GERD can be treated with either medication or lifestyle changes.


is caused by the frequent backflow of stomach acid from the stomach into the esophagus and back into the mouth. 

There are many conditions in which GERD may increase, including:

  • Smoking.
  • obesity.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Hiatal hernia.
  • Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • Some wrong health practices such as: eating foods that cause an increase in stomach acid or eating them late at night and then sleeping directly.
  • Taking certain types of medication, such as: Aspirin.
  • Excessive consumption of coffee, especially on an empty stomach, leads to increased acid secretion from the stomach.
  • Some cases of stomach and duodenal ulcers.

Symptoms of GERD


One of the most common symptoms of GERD is an increase in stomach acidity with a severe burning sensation in the stomach and esophagus up to the mouth, with acidic fluid rising from the stomach in both the mouth and esophagus.

Other symptoms of GERD also include:

  • Food goes back into the mouth, leaving a bitter or sour taste.
  • Burning pain in the chest that starts from behind the sternum and extends to the neck and throat.
  • Feeling of discomfort when swallowing.
  • In severe cases, patients may also complain of sore throat and larynx, chronic cough, difficulty swallowing, and a feeling of a lump in the throat.

GERD can be diagnosed with some medical tests and procedures, such as:

  • X-ray examination: The digestive system is imaged using X-rays, and this examination allows the doctor to see the inner wall of the esophagus, stomach and upper part of the intestine.
  • Esophageal stricture measurement: Your doctor will ask you to swallow a barium tablet. If you have esophageal stricture, you will undoubtedly have difficulty swallowing a barium tablet (barium transit test).
  • Esophageal manometry: This test measures the movement of the esophageal muscles, and records the contractions, if any.
  • Upper endoscopy: This procedure is done by the doctor inserting an endoscope with a camera through the mouth opening through the esophagus, a thin, flexible tube. This procedure detects the presence of chronic inflammation in the wall of the stomach or esophagus, and the doctor can take a biopsy or a sample of the inflamed tissue and examine it in the laboratory if a change in the shape of the cells is observed.

GERD Complications GERD

may cause some serious health complications if treatment is neglected, misdiagnosed, or the patient does not respond to treatment. These complications include:

  • esophageal ulcers: which occur over time as a result of chronic inflammation in the tissues lining the esophageal wall, and lead to erosion of the esophageal wall and the occurrence of bleeding and severe pain in severe disease cases.
  • Esophageal stricture: This occurs as a result of the formation of some scar tissue, a type of benign tumor, which narrows the diameter of the esophagus and thus narrows the food path. In this case, the patient complains of severe difficulty swallowing.
  • Barrett's esophagus as a result of changes in the cells lining the esophageal wall and their transformation into a type of cancer cell known as Barrett, and these changes increase the rate of esophageal cancer.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treatment at home

There are many home remedies and methods that help in GERD.

The following treatments are not a definitive cure for GERD, but they are natural ways that can improve your condition. Here are the main ones:

  • Baking soda: Baking

soda helps relieve stomach acidity that may cause GERD, thus relieving heartburn.

To get the benefit, simply add 1 teaspoon of baking soda to a quarter cup of water and then drink it. You can take this remedy several times during the day, keeping in mind that it does not exceed seven doses per day.

You should also avoid taking this remedy for more than a week, as it is high in salt and may cause unpleasant symptoms such as nausea and swelling.

  • Mustard:

Mustard contains vinegar and several minerals, as well as an alkaloid that may help relieve stomach acidity caused by GERD.

You can take 1 teaspoon of mustard if you suffer from GERD.

  • Ginger tea: Ginger

tea is useful for many stomach ailments, such as nausea and chronic acid reflux.

You can make ginger tea easily by putting pieces of ginger root in water and then boiling it over low heat for half an hour.

  • Milk

is one of the useful home remedies to get rid of GERD, because it contains lactic acid, which works to reduce stomach acidity that causes GERD, and helps calm the irritated digestive system as a result of severe acid cases.


To benefit from milk in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, drink milk several times during the day until you feel comfortable, or add some ingredients to the milk such as: black pepper, or ground coriander leaves.

  • juice is

one of the famous home remedies for heartburn that causes GERD, because of its properties that enable it to control heartburn by treating the digestive system and reducing inflammation, in addition to removing toxins from the body, and promoting digestion.

  • Basil leaves Basil

leaves stimulate the production of more stomach mucus, which helps relieve nausea and acidity that cause GERD, relieve flatulence due to its anti-ulcer properties, and calm gastritis.

You can eat basil leaves directly or boil them and drink it as a tea.

  • Cumin seeds Cumin

seeds are used to treat acidity caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease. They balance acids, aid in digestion, and relieve stomach pain.

You can also take cumin seeds by mixing a teaspoon of cumin seeds, fennel seed powder and sugar with half a glass of water and drink it before eating, or prepare a cumin seed tea and drink it immediately after meals.


can be prevented by following some medical advice, such as:

  • Avoid sleeping immediately after eating.
  • Sleeping on a raised pillow to slightly elevate the upper body and avoid GERD.
  • Avoid eating late at night.
  • Avoid eating fatty meals and fatty foods that cause an increase in stomach acid secretion.
  • Avoid eating foods that contain a large amount of spicy spices.
  • Eat vegetables and fruits and drink enough water.


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