Migraine is a common type of headache that occurs due to a disorder of nerves, blood vessels, and chemicals in the brain. This type of headache causes intense throbbing pain, often on one side of the head, and in rare cases on both sides of the head, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light. It lasts from four hours to several days, and treating migraine headaches may help relieve symptoms or eliminate them completely.
Causes of Migraines
The main causes of migraines are still unknown, which makes it more difficult to choose the most appropriate and best treatment.
As the main cause is the signals that activate the trigeminal nerve, which in turn secretes serotonin and a peptide linked to the calcitonin gene, which leads to the enlargement of blood vessels in the brain causing pain.
There are many types of migraines, and their classification depends on the cause of the headache, and the following are a number of possible causes of migraines:
- Psychological stress.
- Eat some foods that trigger a migraine attack, such as cheese and sausage.
- Too much caffeine causes migraines, contrary to what some expect.
- weather changes.
- Hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle, menopause, or during pregnancy.
- Sensory stimuli such as bright lights, sunlight, and loud sounds are all migraine triggers.
- Changes in sleep pattern. Not getting enough sleep or sleeping for long periods of time can trigger migraines.
- take some medicine.
- And there are some other factors, such as sudden diet, smoking, etc., which require the patient to request headache treatment that suits his condition and relieves its severity.
Symptoms Symptoms Before a Migraine Attack
In the first stage of a headache, about a third of people have pre-existing symptoms that last from hours to days before the attack occurs.
These symptoms include:
- mood changes,
- Difficulty concentrating
- stiff neck.
- Symptoms of a migraine attack
In patients who suffer from migraine, attacks occur on average about once a month, but some patients experience multiple attacks per week, and there are attacks that last more than 3 days without interruption.
Symptoms The main symptoms of both types of migraine are:
- The pain usually begins on one side of the head, but sometimes moves to the other, then gradually increases in intensity within hours.
- Sometimes the headache is accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
- There is an increased sensitivity to stimuli such as: light, noise and smell.
- The attack may be accompanied by feeling tired, thirsty, excessive urination, pallor, sweating, hunger, or decreased appetite.
- Decreased ability to concentrate, feelings of depression, anxiety, and nervousness can occur.
- Weak focus.
- Symptoms of migraine with
- aura The aura usually appears before the onset of the headache, but it may sometimes appear during or after the headache, and last less than an hour, due to the similarities, especially to the brain.
The following are the main symptoms associated with a migraine aura:
- Vision disturbance.
- Sensation disturbance.
- Decreased body strength in the right or left side.
- Balance disturbance.
- speech disorder;
Treating migraines at home Home
treatment for migraines includes the following possible methods:
Use a cold compress
Place an ice pack or a cold compress on your forehead, scalp or neck to reduce pain in the area.
Applying compresses or ice can reduce blood flow to the area, which may be a reason to relieve migraine pain.
Caffeine is found in many foods and drinks, such as coffee and chocolate, that can reduce migraine symptoms.
Caffeine helps speed up the absorption of migraine medications, but its effect wears off more quickly, so it's important to take caffeine in moderation and not rely on it completely.
Sit in a dark, quiet room
Being in a lit place with turmoil around you will make your headaches worse, and your migraine symptoms can worsen.
If you are experiencing a migraine attack, we advise you to go to a quiet room and turn off the lights and sit in it, as this will speed up the healing process.
This should be avoided in the event of a migraine attack, as exercise can exacerbate pain and symptoms.
On the days when you do not have a seizure, it is necessary to exercise, because it contributes to protecting you from painful seizures as much as possible, as exercise helps the body to secrete a substance called endorphins, which fights pain, reduces stress, and contributes to falling asleep more easily.
Take over-the-counter medications
They are pain relievers that help relieve the symptoms of severe and severe attacks, but you should consult your doctor about taking them.
There are also some medications that your doctor can prescribe to treat migraine headaches, depending on your health condition.
Tips for dealing with migraines Migraine
patients are advised to follow some tips that help to live with the disease to avoid exposure to attacks:
- Avoid stimulating factors as much as possible, including abstaining from smoking and not sitting with smokers.
- Avoid certain foods that contain a large amount of tyramine.
- Do yoga and relaxation exercises.
- Stay away from stress.
- Get enough sleep.
Complications of migraines
Complications of migraines include:
- Digestive problems: due to excessive intake of non-steroidal pain relievers used to treat migraines, which cause stomach pain and ulcers, and may sometimes lead to stomach bleeding.
- Serotonin syndrome: Serotonin syndrome is a rare condition caused by some antidepressants used to treat migraines such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.
- Chronic migraine: A migraine is classified as chronic when severe headaches occur for 15 days or more over a period of 3 months.